2021. N 15

Personality and Family

Financial protection in health in Russia

The work is devoted to the analysis of the financial protection of households when using medical services in Russia. Among the key indicators that determine the level of protection of families from financial burdens when using health-related services, the following were selected: out-of-pocket spending on health care, catastrophic personal payments and wasteful payments that lead to family impoverishment, and index of essential health services. Analysis of financial protection in Russia based on these indicators led to the following conclusions. The indicators of financial protection in Russia look quite satisfactory — both in terms of catastrophic spending and in terms of the indicator of impoverishment of the population due to personal expenses for medical care. However, this is due not so much to financial security and government support of the population, but to the fact that a large number of households cannot afford to spend money on medical services. The low index of essential health services in our country indicates that a significant number of people do not use medical care, even when it is needed.

 

Intergenerational relationship in incomplete and complete families

The article examines intergenerational relationships in incomplete and complete families. The information base was compiled by the materials of the Rosstat survey “Comprehensive observation of living conditions of the population 2018”. The financial situation of incomplete and complete families is unsatisfactory. Monetary incomes “do not reach” the socially acceptable consumer budget and are mainly spent on satisfying the essential needs of life. The intergenerational relationship between parents and children remains close, as evidenced by their mutual support. With the same structure of assistance to the older generation, differences in its provision by children from incomplete and complete families appeared. Urban children from single-parent families, first of all, provide instrumental assistance to their parents, while rural children provide housekeeping help. Parents are a support for both the young and the older generations of the family. Support for the young is reduced to financial transfers, for the older generation — to the daily care of elderly family members. The performed analysis allows us to draw a conclusion about the similarity of intergenerational relations in urban and rural incomplete families of different types, while the differences are between incomplete and complete families.

 

About “The Encyclopedia on the Youth”

The topic of childhood and adolescence continues to remain in the area of sociological attention. Along the way, those characteristics of this phenomenon are revealed, which, due to their fundamental significance, can be called “existential”, and even better, “ontological”. However, the cognitive apparatus with which we approach childhood/adolescence does not always capture these remarkable characteristics. This conclusion is tested on the material of the book of memoirs and reflections “The Encyclopedia of Youth” (Epstein, Yurienen, 2017). In particular, the opinion of prof. Dm. Shalin (University of Nevada) on the book of memoirs “Encyclopedia of Youth” is critically examined. In the course of this discussion, principled considerations have been made regarding the sociological significance of the “phenomenon of youth” in society.

 

History and Theory

Development of infrastructure studies (S.L. Star, G. Bowker, B. Larkin)

The article provides an overview of the ideas of leading authors, whose works develop one of the directions in modern technology research. The readers see the range of concepts through which it is possible to theorize technical infrastructures sociologically, for example, electrical networks, transport communications, information databases and Internet platforms. The interactionist approach of S. L. Star explains the relational nature of infrastructures. G. Bowker calls to think about the hyper-functionality of infrastructures, that is, the property that supports the human self and even egocentrism. Starting from the concept of techno-policy, B. Larkin focuses on the poetic function of infrastructures as a component of the political regime. As an emerging area, acquaintance with social research of infrastructures is interesting for everyone who studies digitalization trends.

 

Essays and Sketches

The ideal edge: the secretive style of an evident art

Comparing the known with unknown may lead you to a discovery. So it happened upon a rather attentive study of some paintings out of a private collection devoid of any public attention. Neither technique nor the used means of expression reminded of any analogies. So there could not be any appropriate definition for that phenomenon. Just some stylistic traits led to the tradition of several names of modernism. Curious, but one form of the ways of that tradition somehow could evolve and distinguish itself within the Russian society — beyond the extinct socialist realism or now fully tamed and therefore futile non-conformism. The proposed formula of ideal edge stands not just for the avant-garde method of this art but, metaphorically, speaks as well for its belonging to the edge between art and reality, serving to attest the style which emerged through decades of the original Russian mastership. Apparently, we are by far not imitators any longer.